International, the only international non-governmental
organisation devoted to combating corruption, brings
civil society, business, and governments together
in a powerful global coalition.
Internet Center for Corruption Research
provides you with the TI-Corruption Perceptions
Index, a comparative assessment of country's integrity
performance, alongside with related academic research
on corruption. www.icgg.org/
World Bank Group’s mission is to fight
poverty and improve the living standards of people
in the developing world. It is a development Bank
which provides loans, policy advice, technical assistance
and knowledge sharing services to low and middle income
countries to reduce poverty. The Bank promotes growth
to create jobs and to empower poor people to take
advantage of these opportunities. www.worldbank.org/
IMF is an organization of 184 countries,
working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure
financial stability, facilitate international trade,
promote high employment and sustainable economic
growth, and reduce poverty. www.imf.org/
The Congo Free State was a kingdom privately and controversially
'owned' by King Leopold II of Belgium that included the
entire area now known as the Democratic Republic of the
Congo. Leopold II began laying the diplomatic, military,
and economic groundwork for his control of the Congo in
1877, and ruled it outright from early 1885 until its
annexation by Belgium in 1908.
Leopold II's administration, the Congo Free State was
subject to a terror regime, including atrocities such
as mass killings and maimings which were used to subjugate
the indigenous tribes of the Congo region and to procure
slave labour. Estimates of the death toll range from three
to twenty-two million.
in 1900, news of the conditions in the Congo Free State
began to be exposed in European and U.S. press. By 1908
public pressure and diplomatic manoeuvres led to the end
of Leopold II's rule, and to the annexation of the Congo
as a colony of Belgium, known as the Belgian Congo.
Holocaust was the systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored
persecution and murder of approximately six million Jews
by the Nazi regime and its collaborators. "Holocaust"
is a word of Greek origin meaning "sacrifice by fire."
The Nazis, who came to power in Germany in January 1933,
believed that Germans were "racially superior"
and that the Jews, deemed "inferior," were "life
unworthy of life." During the era of the Holocaust,
the Nazis also targeted other groups because of their
perceived "racial inferiority": Roma (Gypsies),
the handicapped, and some of the Slavic peoples (Poles,
Russians, and others). Other groups were persecuted on
political and behavioral grounds, among them Communists,
Socialists, Jehovah's Witnesses, and homosexuals.
morning we were at Midtown Manhattan on the 31st floor
of a building facing south. We saw a (Boeing) 767 flying
low down the center of the island of Manhattan, heading
toward downtown Manhattan. About, maybe, 20 blocks north
of the World Trade Center, we saw the plane veer to the
left and fly directly into the north side of the south
tower. This was the first plane, a 767."
Rolihlahla Mandela was born in a village near
Umtata in the Transkei on the 18 July 1918. His
father was the principal councillor to the Acting
Paramount Chief of Thembuland. After his father
s death, the young Rolihlahla became the Paramount
Chief s ward to be groomed to assume high office.
However, influenced by the cases that came before
the Chief s court, he determined to become a lawyer.
Hearing the elders stories of his ancestors valour
during the wars of resistance in defence of their
fatherland, he dreamed also of making his own
contribution to the freedom struggle of his people.
its commitment to conflict resolution, to the removal
of poverty as well as improving the health of the public,
especially in regard to terminal diseases, the Foundation
has joined those organisations that bring hope to many
people in our country and possibly beyond our borders".
Carter aspired to make Government "competent
and compassionate," responsive to the American
people and their expectations. His achievements
were notable, but in an era of rising energy costs,
mounting inflation, and continuing tensions, it
was impossible for his administration to meet
these high expectations.
who has rarely used his full name--James Earl
Carter, Jr.--was born October 1, 1924, in Plains,
Georgia. Peanut farming, talk of politics, and
devotion to the Baptist faith were mainstays of
his upbringing. Upon graduation in 1946 from the
Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland, Carter married
Rosalynn Smith. The Carters have three sons, John
William (Jack), James Earl III (Chip), Donnel
Jeffrey (Jeff), and a daughter, Amy Lynn.
seven years' service as a naval officer, Carter returned
to Plains. In 1962 he entered state politics, and eight
years later he was elected Governor of Georgia. Among
the new young southern governors, he attracted attention
by emphasizing ecology, efficiency in government, and
the removal of racial barriers.
announced his candidacy for President in December 1974
and began a two-year campaign that gradually gained
momentum. At the Democratic Convention, he was nominated
on the first ballot. He chose Senator Walter F. Mondale
of Minnesota as his running mate. Carter campaigned
hard against President Gerald R. Ford, debating with
him three times. Carter won by 297 electoral votes to
241 for Ford.
worked hard to combat the continuing economic woes of
inflation and unemployment. By the end of his administration,
he could claim an increase of nearly eight million jobs
and a decrease in the budget deficit, measured in percentage
of the gross national product. Unfortunately, inflation
and interest rates were at near record highs, and efforts
to reduce them caused a short recession.
could point to a number of achievements in domestic
affairs. He dealt with the energy shortage by establishing
a national energy policy and by decontrolling domestic
petroleum prices to stimulate production. He prompted
Government efficiency through civil service reform and
proceeded with deregulation of the trucking and airline
industries. He sought to improve the environment. His
expansion of the national park system included protection
of 103 million acres of Alaskan lands. To increase human
and social services, he created the Department of Education,
bolstered the Social Security system, and appointed
record numbers of women, blacks, and Hispanics to Government
foreign affairs, Carter set his own style. His championing
of human rights was coldly received by the Soviet Union
and some other nations. In the Middle East, through
the Camp David agreement of 1978, he helped bring amity
between Egypt and Israel. He succeeded in obtaining
ratification of the Panama Canal treaties. Building
upon the work of predecessors, he established full diplomatic
relations with the People's Republic of China and completed
negotiation of the SALT II nuclear limitation treaty
with the Soviet Union.
were serious setbacks, however. The Soviet invasion
of Afghanistan caused the suspension of plans for ratification
of the SALT II pact. The seizure as hostages of the
U. S. embassy staff in Iran dominated the news during
the last 14 months of the administration. The consequences
of Iran's holding Americans captive, together with continuing
inflation at home, contributed to Carter's defeat in
1980. Even then, he continued the difficult negotiations
over the hostages. Iran finally released the 52 Americans
the same day Carter left office.
The Doing Business database provides indicators of the
cost of doing business by identifying specific regulations
that enhance or constrain business investment, productivity,
and growth. The indicators are developed by the Private
Sector Vice Presidency of the World Bank Group in cooperation
with the Lex Mundi Association of law firms and the International
The principal data collection methods for the indicators
are the study of the existing laws and regulations in
each economy; targeted interviews with regulators or private
sector professionals in each topic; and cooperative arrangements
with other departments of the World Bank, other donor
agencies, private consulting firms, business and law associations.
The project team prepared a set of templates or questionnaires
for use by staff of the World Bank Group, or other agencies,
in their work on business environment issues.
I Used To Believe is a funny and bizarre collection of
ideas that adults thought were true when they were children.
It will remind you what it was like to be a child, fascinated
and horrified by the world in equal parts. The following
pages will reassure you that the things you used to believe
weren't so strange after all...
Fair Trade in Tourism Network Tourism Concern has worked
for several years to develop the concept and practice
of what Fair Trade in Tourism should be. We have worked
with a an International Fair Trade in Tourism Network.
Through the Network, whose membership includes over 150
organisations from the travel industry, NGOs, and Universities,
we have been examining the realities of the industry’s
commitment in developing countries’ communities.
We have found that in order to protect the attraction
of tourism destinations and benefit destination communities
more substantially, the industry must look towards ethical
is a FREE educational Web site that provides a daily profile
of an international leader or a person of significant
global influence. The primary focus of WhoYouShouldKnow.com
is to highlight international leaders as well as key business
and humanitarian figures. Each weekday WhoYouShouldKnow.com
features a different International leader and his or her
home country. The featured profile contains a picture
of the leader, a map of the country’s location in
the world, a more detailed map of the country, as well
as the country’s flag, links to other important
statistics and factual data about the person and the country.
The Institute for War & Peace Reporting strengthens
local journalism in areas of conflict. By training reporters,
facilitating dialogue and providing reliable information,
it supports peace, democracy and development in societies
undergoing crisis and change.
IWPR's work is distinguished by intensive on-the-job training,
practical collaboration between international and regional
journalists to transfer skills and experience for the long
The Institute takes training out of the classroom and conference
hall and brings it into the field, assisting the professional
development of the media while addressing journalists' and
editors' immediate, day-to-day priorities.
Africa 05 is the biggest celebration of African culture
ever organised in Britain. Between February and October
a huge range of organisations from national museums to
community centres will be hosting events that will celebrate
the best African and diasporic arts.
art, cinema, literature, history, music, craft, and performing
arts: Africa 05 will give a real sense of the richness
and complex diversity of African culture today.
programme will include creative giants that we are probably
familiar with; Baaba Maal, Wole Soyinka, but there will
also be dozens of younger artists who will be working
in Britain for the first time.
for International Development- Mission
the Department for International Development: leading
the British government’s fight against world poverty.
in five people in the world today, over 1 billion people,
live in poverty on less than one dollar a day. In an increasingly
inter-dependent world, many problems - like conflict,
crime, pollution, and diseases such as HIV and AIDS -
are caused or made worse by poverty.
supports long-term programmes to help tackle the underlying
causes of poverty. DFID also responds to emergencies,
both natural and man-made.
work forms part of a global promise to
halve the number of people living in extreme poverty
that all children receive primary education
sexual equality and give women a stronger voice
child death rates
the health of mothers
HIV & AIDS, malaria and other diseases
sure the environment is protected
a global partnership for those working in development
In Nkrumah's emotional state we can easily find ourselves
in an escalating fight and, given the Congressional (e.g.
Dodd) animus against Nkrumah the whole Volta-Valco issue/4/
could well be revived. The question is less whether we
want to use Volta as a club against Nkrumah than whether
we want to expose the President to political embarrassment
over the Volta commitment (even though it was President
Kennedy's not his).
The Federation of Nigeria, as it is known today, has never
really been one homogeneous country, for it's widely differing
peoples and tribes. This obvious fact notwithstanding,
the former colonial master decided to keep the country
one in order to effectively control her vital resources
for their economic interests.
Under Gates' leadership, Microsoft's mission has been
to continually advance and improve software technology,
and to make it easier, more cost-effective and more enjoyable
for people to use computers. The company is committed
to a long-term view, reflected in its investment of approximately
$6.2 billion on research and development in the 2005 fiscal
Born in October 1925 at Grantham, a small market town
in eastern England, she rose to become the first (and
so far, the only) woman to lead a major Western democracy.
She won three successive General Elections and served
as British Prime Minister for more than eleven years
(1979-90), a record unmatched in the twentieth century.
The Official Web Site of Malcolm X has everything you
want to know about this historical figure. Read his biography
and read inspirational quotes from this talented speaker.
Browse the photo gallery for pictures of Malcolm X throughout
The M.K. Institute for Nonviolence was founded in 1991
by the grandson of Mahatma Gandhi, Arun Gandhi, and his
wife, Sunanda. The Gandhis provided seed money for the
Institute through the sale of Gandhiji’s letters
to his son and daughter-in-law (Arun’s parents),
Manilal and Sushila. Sustaining funds come from contributions,
publications, program fees, and modest grants. The Institute
is hosted by Christian Brothers University, which graciously
provides offices for our work in nonviolence.
"It is far easier for the proverbial camel to pass
through the needle's eye, hump and all, than for an erstwhile
colonial administration to give sound and honest counsel
of a political nature to its liberated territory."
was raised in a working-class family in Brooklyn, and
flew bombing missions for the United States in World War
II, an experience he now points to in shaping his opposition
to war. In 1956, he became a professor at Spelman College
in Atlanta, a school for black women, where he soon became
involved in the Civil rights movement, which he participated
in as an adviser to the Student Nonviolent Coordinating
Committee (SNCC) and chronicled, in his book SNCC: The
New Abolitionists. Zinn collaborated with historian Staughton
Lynd and mentored a young student named Alice Walker.
When he was fired in 1963 for insubordination related
to his protest work, he moved to Boston University, where
he became a leading critic of the Vietnam War.
is perhaps best known for A People's History of the United
States, which presents American history through the eyes
of those he feels are outside of the political and economic
In 1963, Ralph Nader, then an unknown twenty-nine-year
old attorney, abandoned a conventional law practice in
Hartford, Connecticut, and hitchhiked to Washington, D.C.,
to begin a long odyssey of professional citizenship. "I
had one suitcase," he recalled. "I stayed in
the YMCA. Walked across a little street and had a hot
dog, my last." (A few years later he would expose
the repulsive ingredients that go into hot dogs.)
"Anyone who knows anything of history knows that
great social changes are impossible without feminine
upheaval. Social progress can be measured exactly by
the social position of the fair sex, the ugly ones included"
Male Health Center was founded in 1989 by Dr. Kenneth
A. Goldberg, a board-certified urologist. Dr. Goldberg
created the center because there was a need to provide
men with an integrated system of care that addressed all